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Vehicle to Grid (V2G) is a

system[] in which energy stored in the batteries of electric vehicles is sent to a next-generation power grid, called a smart grid. Connecting electric vehicles to the smart grid makes the power stored in the electric vehicle available for other purposes. In this concept, electric automobiles are used not only as vehicles, but also as infrastructure to help balance supply and demand for electrical power.[1]


V2G is one of the technological advances that will be used in making electric vehicles a viable mainstream option for prospective automobile customers. V2G will be a vital component for both the vehicle's owners and the energy providers because it will allow both parties to draw power from each other as needed.

Peak load leveling is a concept that allows V2G vehicles to provide power to help balance loads by 'valley filling' (charging at night when demand is low) and 'peak shaving' (sending power back to the grid when demand is high).” V2G allows electric vehicle the capability to charge their fuel cells when energy demand is low while energy enables companies to draw power from the vehicles when there is a shortage of power.

“Since most vehicles are parked an average of 95 percent of the time, their batteries could be used to let electricity flow from the car to the power lines and back, with a value to the utilities of up to $4,000 per year per car.” Seeing that V2G follows the concept of peak load leveling, power consumers and providers can help each other reduce cost and improve overall effectiveness of power distribution.


  1. Hitachi Glossary (full-text).