One aspect of increased use of the Internet for electronic mail (e-mail) has been the advent of unsolicited advertising, also called unsolicited commercial electronic mail (UCE),” “unsolicited bulk e-mail,” “junk e-mail, “or “spam.” Complaints focus on the fact that some spam contains or has links to pornography, that much of it is fraudulent, that it is a nuisance, and the volume is increasing. Although consumers are most familiar with spam on their personal computers, it also is becoming an issue in text messaging on wireless telephones, pagers, and personal digital assistants (PDAs).


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