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== Definitions ==
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== Definition ==
   
 
A '''security clearance''' is a status granted to individuals allowing them [[access]] to [[classified information]], i.e., state secrets, or to restricted areas.
A '''security clearance''' is
 
 
{{Quote|a status granted to individuals allowing them [[access]] to [[classified information]], i.e., [[state secret]]s, or to restricted areas.}}
 
 
{{Quote|[a]n administrative determination by certain Federal agencies (other than [[DOE]] and [[NRC]]) that an individual is eligible for [[access]] to [[classified information]]. Security clearances are designated as [[Top Secret]], [[Secret]], or [[Confidential]], indicating that the recipient is approved for [[access]] to [[National Security Information]] or [[Formerly Restricted Data]] at a [[classification level]] equal to or less than his/her security clearance level.<ref>[[DOE Manual 470.4-7]], at 54.</ref>}}
 
   
 
== Overview ==
 
== Overview ==
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Security clearances are required for [[access]] to [[national security]] [[information]], which may be [[classified]] at one of three levels: [[confidential]], [[secret]], and [[top secret]].
 
Security clearances are required for [[access]] to [[national security]] [[information]], which may be [[classified]] at one of three levels: [[confidential]], [[secret]], and [[top secret]].
   
The level of [[classification]] denotes the degree of protection required for [[information]] and the amount of damage that [[unauthorized disclosure]] could reasonably be expected to cause to [[national security]]. [[Unauthorized disclosure]] could reasonably be expected to cause (1) "damage," in the case of [[confidential]] information; (2) "serious damage," in the case of [[secret]] information; and (3) "exceptionally grave damage," in the case of [[top secret]] information.<ref>[[Executive Order 12958]], §1.3 (as amended), 5 C.F.R. §1312.4 (2008).</ref>
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The level of [[classification]] denotes the degree of protection required for [[information]] and the amount of damage that [[unauthorized disclosure]] could reasonably be expected to cause to [[national security]]. [[Unauthorized disclosure]] could reasonably be expected to cause (1) “damage, in the case of [[confidential]] information; (2) “serious damage, in the case of [[secret]] information; and (3) “exceptionally grave damage, in the case of [[top secret]] information.<ref>[[Executive Order 12958]], Classified National Security Information, §1.3 (Apr. 17, 1995) (as amended), 5 C.F.R. §1312.4 (2008).</ref>
 
== U.S. military ==
 
 
"Within [[DoD]], a security clearance is a determination that a person is eligible under [[DoD]] [[policy]] for [[access]] to [[classified information]]. [[Clearance]]s allow personnel to [[access]] [[classified information]] categorized into three levels: [[top secret]], [[secret]], and [[confidential]]. The [[damage]] to [[national defense]] and foreign relations that [[unauthorized disclosure]] could reasonably be expected to cause ranges from 'exceptionally grave damage' for [[top secret]] [[information]] to 'damage' for [[confidential information]]."<ref>Office of Counterintelligence (DXC), Defense CI & HUMINT Center, Defense Intelligence Agency, "Terms and Definitions of Interest for DoD Counterintelligence Professional," at GL-153 (May 2, 2011) ([https://www.fas.org/irp/eprint/ci-glossary.pdf full-text]).</ref>
 
   
 
== References ==
 
== References ==
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[[Category:Security]]
 
[[Category:Security]]
 
[[Category:Data]]
 
[[Category:Data]]
[[Category:Definition]]
 

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