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The principal treaty for the protection of neighboring rights, the Rome Convention, was adopted in 1961, and is considered by many to include standards that are inadequate for dealing with the problems raised by current technological advances and the level of trade in the products and subject matter affected by its operation.

It provides for the protection of producers of phonograms against unauthorized reproduction of their phonograms, for performers to prevent certain reproductions and fixations of their performances and it provides limited rights for broadcasting organizations.

The Rome Convention requires that these rights endure for a period of 20 years. It also provides for protection against certain "secondary uses" of phonograms, such as broadcasting, but it contains the ability for members to reserve, or decline to implement, this right.

The United States is not a signatory to the Rome Convention.

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