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U.S. copyright law[]

In Section 1001 of the U.S. Copyright Law, manufacture "means to produce or assemble a product in the United States.”[1]

U.S. patent law[]

The U.S. Supreme Court has read the term manufacture in 35 U.S.C. §101 in accordance with its dictionary definition to mean "the production of articles for use from raw or prepared materials by giving these materials new forms, qualities, properties, or combinations, whether by hand-labor or by machinery."[2]


  1. 17 U.S.C. §1001(8).
  2. Diamond v. Chakrabarty, 447 U.S. 303, 308, 206 U.S.P.Q. (BNA) 193 (1980) (full-text), quoting American Fruit Growers, Inc. v. Brogdex Co., 283 U.S. 1, 11 (1931) (full-text). See also MPEP 2105, MPEP 2106, MPEP 2114.