The IT Law Wiki


Export Administration Regulations[]

"Knowledge of a circumstance (the term may be a variant, such as 'know,' 'reason to know,' or 'reason to believe') includes not only positive knowledge that the circumstance exists or is substantially certain to occur, but also an awareness of a high probability of its existence or future occurrence. Such awareness is inferred from evidence of the conscious disregard of facts known to a person and is also inferred from a person's willful avoidance of facts."[1]


Knowledge is

data or information that have been organized and processed to convey understanding, experience, accumulated learning, and expertise as they apply to a current problem or activity. Data that are processed to extract critical implications and to reflect past experience and expertise provide the recipient with organizational knowledge, which has a very high potential value.[2]
(1) Having cognizance. (2) The fact or condition of knowing something with familiarity gained through experience or association of available information. (3) The fact or condition of having information or being aware of something.[3]

Uniform Commercial Code[]

“A person ‘knows’ or has ‘knowledge’ of a fact when he has actual knowledge of it. ‘Discover’ or ‘learn’ or a word or phrase of similar import refers to knowledge rather than to reason to know. The time and circumstances under which a notice or notification may cease to be effective are not determined by this Act.”[4]


  1. U.S. Export Administration Regulations, Part 772 (15 C.F.R. §772.1).
  2. The Common Approach to Federal Enterprise Architecture, at 47 (Terms and Definitions).
  3. Capstone Requirements Document: Global Information Grid (GIG) 76 (JROCM 134-01) (Aug. 30, 2001) (unclassified) (full-text).
  4. U.C.C. §1-201(25).

See also[]