Hacking is "a deliberate attempt by a nonauthorized user to affect the vehicle in some material way. This includes, most alarmingly, commandeering the vehicle, but also attempting to partly control it, materially misleading the relevant artificial intelligence, or using ransomware. It also includes efforts to obtain personal or other data from the vehicle or system. It excludes inadvertent errors in the software code that may lead to a crash or other non-deliberate actions, mechanical failures, or malfunctions."
Hacking (also computer hacking) is the unauthorized use of, or attempts to circumvent or bypass the security measures used by, a computer system or computer network. Hacking is one of oldest computer-related crimes.
Examples of hacking attacks include:
- Breaking the password of a password-protected website;
- Circumventing password protection on a computer;
- Exploiting a faulty hardware or software implementation to illegally obtain a password to access a [[computer system];
- Setting up spoofing websites to convince users to disclose their passwords; and
- Installing hardware- or software-based keylogging methods to record keystrokes, including any passwords used on that computer and/or device.
"In the early years of IT development, the term 'hacking' was used to describe the attempt to get more out of a system (software or hardware) than it was designed for. Within this context, the term 'hacking' was often used to describe a constructive activity."
- When Autonomous Vehicles Are Hacked, Who Is Liable?, at 2.
- Marco Gercke, "An Introduction to Cybercrime" 12 n.89 (full-text).