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Geocoding is

a function of a geographic information system (GIS) that determines a physical location based on an address.
the conversion of spatial information into computer-readable form. As such, geocoding, both the process and the concepts involved, determines the type, scale, accuracy, and precision of digital maps.[1]
[the] assignment of alphanumeric codes or coordinates to geographically referenced data. Examples include the two-letter country codes, or the coordinates of a residence computed from its address. The end result is spatial data that can be displayed as features on a map.[2]
[t]he process of associating geographic coordinates or grid cell identifiers to data, points, lines, and shapes.[3]


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