The IT Law Wiki

The following are the GAO reports published in 2021 that are discussed in this wiki (in reverse chronological order). Those reports that have already been summarized are in blue; those that have not yet been summarized are in red.

[NOTE: GAO Reports are often updated; many are updated multiple times. The links below are to the most recent version of the Report.]


  • Space Command and Control: Opportunities Exist to Enhance Annual Reporting (GAO-22-104685) (Dec. 22, 2021).
  • Open Data: Additional Action Required for Full Public Access (GAO-22-104574) (Dec. 16, 2021) (full-text).
  • DHS Privacy: Selected Component Agencies Generally Provided Oversight of Contractors, but Further Actions Are Needed to Address Gaps (GAO-22-104144) (Dec. 16, 2021).
  • Information Technology: Digital Service Programs Need to Consistently Coordinate on Developing Guidance for Agencies (GAO-22-104492) (Dec 10, 2021).
  • Defense Contractor Cybersecurity: Stakeholder Communication and Performance Goals Could Improve Certification Framework (GAO-22-104679) (Dec. 8, 2021).
  • Cybersecurity: NIH Needs to Take Further Actions to Resolve Control Deficiencies and Improve Its Program (GAO-22-104467) (Dec. 7, 2021).
  • Cybersecurity: Federal Actions Urgently Needed to Better Protect the Nation's Critical Infrastructure (GAO-22-105530) (Dec. 2, 2021).
  • NASA: Lessons from Ongoing Major Projects Can Inform Management of Future Space Telescopes (GAO-22-105555) (Dec 1, 2021).



  • U.S. Agency for Global Media: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Oversight of Broadcasting Networks (GAO-22-104017) (Oct. 27, 2021).
  • Critical Infrastructure Protection: Education Should Take Additional Steps to Help Protect K-12 Schools from Cyber Threats (GAO-22-105024) (Oct. 13, 2021).


  • High-Performance Computing: Advances Made Towards Implementing the National Strategy, but Better Reporting and a More Detailed Plan Are Needed (GAO-21-104500) (Sept. 30, 2021).
  • COVID-19: Selected Agencies Overcame Technology Challenges to Support Telework but Need to Fully Assess Security Controls (GAO-21-583) (Sept, 30, 2021).
  • Aircraft Noise: FAA Could Improve Outreach Through Enhanced Noise Metrics Communication, and Support to Communities (GAO-21-103933) (Sept. 28, 2021).
  • Broadband: FCC is Taking Steps to Accurately Map Locations That Lack Access (GAO-21-104447) (Sept. 28, 2021).
  • GSA Online Marketplaces: Plans to Measure Progress and Monitor Data Protection Efforts Need Further Development (GAO-21-104572) (Sept 28, 2021).
  • Electricity Grid Resilience (GAO-21-105403) (Sept. 20, 2021).
  • Electronic Health Records: DOD Has Made Progress in Implementing a New System, but Challenges Persist (GAO-21-571)

(Sept. 20, 2021).

  • Exposure Notification: Benefits and Challenges of Smartphone Applications to Augment Contact Tracing (GAO-21-104622) (Sept. 9, 2021).



  • FY2022 Electronic Warfare Funding Trends, CRS Insight (July 21, 2021).
  • Overview of Department of Defense Use of the Electromagnetic Spectrum (updated July 16, 2021).


  • Software Development: DOD Faces Risks and Challenges in Implementing Modern Approaches and Addressing Cybersecurity Practices (GAO-21-351) (June 23, 2021).
  • Sex Trafficking: Online Platforms and Federal Prosecutions (GAO-21-385) (June 21, 2021).
  • Defense Cybersecurity: Defense Logistics Agency Needs to Address Risk Management Deficiencies in Inventory Systems (GAO-21-278) (June 21, 2021).
  • Commercial Space Transportation: FAA Continues to Update Regulations and Faces Challenges to Overseeing an Evolving Industry (GAO-21-105268) (June 16, 2021).
  • Homeland Security:DHS Needs to Fully Implement Key Practices in Acquiring Biometric Identity Management System (GAO-21-386) (June 8, 2021).
  • Science & Tech Spotlight: Digital Vaccine Credentials (GAO-21-534SP) (June 3, 2021).




  • High-Risk Series: Federal Government Needs to Urgently Pursue Critical Actions to Address Major Cybersecurity Challenges (GAO-21-288) (Mar. 24, 2021).
  • Freedom of Information Act: Actions Needed to Improve Agency Compliance with Proactive Disclosure Requirements (GAO-21-254) (Mar. 10, 2021).
  • Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency: Actions Needed to Ensure Organizational Changes Result in More Effective Cybersecurity for Our Nation (GAO-21-236) (Mar. 10, 2021).
  • Weapon Systems Cybersecurity" Guidance Would Help DOD Programs Better Communicate Requirements to Contractors (GAO-21-179) (Mar. 04, 2021).
  • Data Center Optimization: Agencies Report Progress and Billions Saved, but OMB Needs to Improve Its Utilization Guidance (GAO-21-212) (Mar. 04, 2021).
  • Aviation Security Technology: TSA Lacks Outcome-oriented Performance Measures and Data to Help Reach Objectives to Diversify its Marketplace (GAO-21-146) (Mar. 03, 2021).


  • Department of Energy: Improved Performance Planning Could Strengthen Technology Transfer (GAO-21-202) (Feb. 1, 2021).


  • Cyber Diplomacy: State Should Use Data and Evidence to Justify Its Proposal for a New Bureau of Cyberspace Security and Emerging Technologies (GAO-21-266R) (Jan. 28, 2021).
  • Telecommunications: FCC Has Implemented the Lifeline National Verifier but Should Improve Consumer Awareness and Experience (GAO-21-235) (Jan. 28, 2021).
  • Unmanned Aircraft Systems: FAA Could Strengthen Its Implementation of a Drone Traffic Management System by Improving Communication and Measuring Performance (GAO-21-165) (Jan. 28, 2021).
  • Freedom of Information Act: Update on Federal Agencies' Use of Exemption Statutes (GAO-21-148) (Jan. 12, 2021).
  • Electronic Health Records: VA Has Made Progress in Preparing for New System, but Subsequent Test Findings Will Need to Be Addressed (GAO-21-224) (Feb. 11, 2021).

Other GAO Reports[]

The following entries list GAO Reports in chronological order by year: