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The White House, Executive Order 13181: To Protect the Privacy of Protected Health Information in Oversight Investigations (Dec. 20, 2000) (full-text).


This Executive Order states that law enforcement may not use protected health information concerning an individual that is discovered during the course of health oversight activities for unrelated civil, administrative, or criminal investigations of a non-health oversight matter, except when the balance of relevant factors weighs clearly in favor of its use. In such a case where protected health information is used, the Deputy Attorney General, in determining the extent to which this information should be used, shall impose appropriate safeguards against unauthorized use.