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Countermeasures (also called security controls and safeguards) are

actions, devices, procedures, techniques, or other measures that reduce the vulnerability of an information system.[1]
[d]efensive security programs and activities which seek to protect against both foreign intelligence collection efforts and unauthorized access to, or disclosure of, protected facilities, information, and material.[2]
[a]ctions, devices, procedures, or techniques that meet or oppose (i.e., counters) a threat, a vulnerability, or an attack by eliminating or preventing it, by minimizing the harm it can cause, or by discovering and reporting it so that corrective action can be taken.[3]


Countermeasures (also called security controls and safeguards) are

[a]nything which effectively negates or mitigates an adversary's ability to exploit vulnerabilities.[4]
[t]hat form of military science that, by the employment of devices and/or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness of enemy activity.[5]


"They can be deployed preemptively or reactively. Devices and techniques used for EW countermeasures include electro-optical-infrared countermeasures and radio frequency countermeasures."[6]

"A countermeasure can reduce any component of riskthreat, vulnerability, or consequence."[7]


See also[]