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The Copyright Royalty Judges (CRJ) was established by the Distribution Reform Act of 2004, and replaced the Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panel. Under the new system, three Copyright Royalty Judges (CRJ) establish the conditions and rates for copyright statutory licenses, and govern the distribution system of royalties collected by the Copyright Office on these statutory licenses.[1]

The CRJs are "appointed by the Librarian of Congress to encourage settlements and, when necessary, resolve statutory license disputes."[2] They serve for a full-time six-year with the possibility for reappointment. To avoid replacing all three judges at the same time, the first three judges appointed will serve staggered terms of two, four, and six years.


  1. 17 U.S.C. §801(b); 37 C.F.R. §301.1.
  2. 70 Fed. Reg. 30901-01.