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The Coordinating Committee for Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom) began operations in 1950 to control export of strategic materials and technology to communist countries (Russia and what have been its allies in the East Bloc).

Participants included Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It maintained three export control lists: (1) the International Industrial List, (2) the International Munitions List, and (3) the International Atomic Energy List.

CoCom ceased to function on March 31, 1994, and the then-current control list of embargoed goods was retained by the member nations until the successor, the Wassenaar Arrangement, was established.