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William S. Cohen, Computer Chaos: Billions Wasted Buying Federal Computer Systems (Oct. 12, 1994) (full-text).


This report identified examples of agencies struggling to adopt IT to perform basic functions, such as automating manual processes and hesitating to use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) because of a belief it was not suited to the existing tasks.

Based on an extensive examination of the federal government's practices for purchasing IT, this review indicates that there were significant systemic problems in the way the federal government buys IT and IT-related services.

The findings of this report spurred the creation of the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996, which first defined the role of the agency CIO.