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Nicholas Ianelli & Aaron Hackworth, Botnets as a Vehicle for Online Crime (CERT Coordination Center) (Dec. 1, 2005) (full-text).


An analysis of real-world botnets indicates the increasing sophistication of bot malware and its thoughtful engineering as an effective tool for profit-motivated online crime. This analysis of source code and captured binaries has provided insight about:

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the capabilities present in bot malware and the motivations for operating botnets.