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Abandonment of patent application is

[t]o relinquish, either by express abandonment or by inaction, a patent application. Abandonment by inaction typically involves failure to take a required action (e.g., filing an incomplete response or not paying a fee) during the statutory period for taking the action. A U.S. patent application that was unavoidably or unintentionally abandoned can be revived by petition. When a device is abandoned, it is returned to the public domain. . . . MPEP 711.[1]


  1. Patent Searching Glossary (full-text).